The Signs and symptoms of appendicitis in children, adults, pregnant women

The main signs of appendicitis

The composition of the rectum includes an appendage - an appendix, which has the property of becoming inflamed. The probability that this will happen is 0.5 to 100, that is, every year, five out of 1,000 people fall prey to appendicitis. If he is diagnosed, the patient is assigned an operation - appendectomy. Lack of surgical intervention often leads to inflammation of the peritoneum - peritonitis, and if a person is not provided with medical care, then he will die.

What is appendicitis

Many consider the appendix to be a vestigial organ, although this is not entirely true, because he once participated in the digestive process. Just in the course of evolution, its useful functions have been lost.

American doctors, in order to get rid of patients from trouble, came up with this: at one time all babies were required to remove the appendix almost immediately after birth. However, it was noted that children who had gone through appendectomy became worse at absorbing mother's milk, and this supposedly good idea had to be abandoned.

The appendix of the cecum performs a very important function in a child in the womb: it is a kind of endocrine gland producing hormones that allow us to adjust the process of digestion in the fetus.

When the process of formation of "full-fledged" endocrine glands ends, the appendix loses its functions, and after the birth of the child, it is his sole responsibility: to promote the assimilation of milk.

But when the child grows up, the appendage of the cecum becomes unnecessary. Nevertheless, it is, and is located on the right side of the lower abdomen just above the groin.

Types and forms of appendicitis

Before "cutting, without waiting for peritonitis," the doctor should clarify the diagnosis, because appendicitis can be different. There are several classifications:

By the nature of the current

  1. Acute. The inflammatory process in the appendix develops quickly, so the patient urgently needs surgery.
  2. Chronic. This is a consequence of the acute form, which can pass without surgery (which happens infrequently). If the patient is exposed to such a diagnosis, then he is sent for surgery, since the problem is not medically eliminated.

By the degree of complexity of the disease

  1. Catarrhal. The first stage, the easiest, on which only the mucous membrane of the appendix is ​​inflamed. The problem is that it is not easy to diagnose a disease, its signs are so weak that they can be ignored.
  2. Surface. The second stage, which causes inflammation of not only the mucous membrane, but also the tissues located under it. The most common form with pronounced symptoms.
  3. Flegious. The third stage, which affects the tissues of the entire appendix. The cavity of the appendix is ​​filled with pus, and its inner surface is covered with sores.
  4. Gangrenous. The last stage of the development of the disease, when the patient ceases to feel pain, because the cells die. The inflammatory process from the appendix moves to other organs, which is the beginning of peritonitis. If a person is not provided with medical care, death may occur within a few hours.

In the place of dislocation

  1. Classical. The appendix is ​​where it should be - on the right side below the liver and above the groin. Therefore, this appendicitis is diagnosed easily.
  2. Atypical. In one-third of the population, the appendix is ​​located incorrectly. For example, its tip can lie on both the kidney and the small intestine. Sometimes the appendix "has to be found" in the small pelvis or at all - on the left side of the body. Of course, this greatly complicates the diagnosis, especially in the early stages of the disease.

Signs and symptoms of appendicitis

At the first stage of the disease, the symptoms are so indistinct that you can not pay attention to them. A person simply has a stomach ache, most often in the navel area. After some time, painful sensations are concentrated in the side where the appendix is ​​located. Basically, patients experience pain in the lower abdomen in the right part of it, which is constantly increasing.

Each person develops the process in different ways: some suffer only a few hours, after which they decide to call an ambulance. Others persistently suffer the pain for several days, and only aggravate the situation, because the earlier the appendix is ​​removed, the less the risk of complications.

If there were very strong pain sensations, but then they became weaker, it means that appendicitis either passed into a chronic form, or its development reached its apogee, and the process of cell death began.

Main symptoms

When the inflammatory process goes too far, then a person experiences not only pain, which is amplified by any careless movement. With appendicitis, you do not feel hungry, your body temperature may rise (which happens infrequently). Nausea and vomiting also do not always occur, but diarrhea or constipation happens in almost all clinical cases. Still patients notice that there is a dryness in a mouth and sensation, as if a tongue is imposed by something.

The simplest method of diagnosis: it is necessary to press on the abdomen (in its right part), without applying special force, and the stress of the abdominal wall should not be felt, that is, it should be soft. Excessive hardness indicates that the inflammatory process exists and tends to develop.

The situation is significantly aggravated when the process is torn, and its contents are spilled into the peritoneum. If this happens, the entire stomach begins to ache, and the patient's condition worsens even more. In this situation, it is necessary to call not just an ambulance, but an urgent one.

The very first signs of appendicitis - we recognize the disease from the first symptoms

Here a lot depends on the sex and age of the patient. The main symptoms - seven, and specific - exactly 11 times more. The following are the symptoms that you should pay attention to:

  1. Deterioration of general well-being.
  2. Pain in the abdomen (with a gradual shift to the navel) and the lumbar spine.
  3. Nausea and vomiting, not bringing relief.
  4. Intensified work of sweat glands.
  5. Cardiopalmus.
  6. A slight increase in temperature (up to 390 C).
  7. Chills.

It happens that the pain subsides. This should be noted, because a similar phenomenon is observed in those cases when the pus-filled appendix burst, and its contents have already fallen into the abdominal cavity.

If the patient with suspicion of appendicitis constipation, it means that the appendix is ​​located where necessary, and the diarrhea that opens opens up clearly: the appendix is ​​located above the rectum.

Signs of appendicitis in women

The diagnosis can be made incorrectly, since there are a number of gynecological diseases with similar symptoms.

Yes, and menstrual pains are easily confused with appendicitis, especially since premenstrual syndrome presents many surprises, because in this period women also have stool, nausea, and vomiting.

With an abnormal location of the appendix, it is even more difficult to diagnose appendicitis, so doctors take into account a couple of "personal" symptoms that allow you to make the right diagnosis:

  1. Symptom of Zhendrinsky. The patient assumes a horizontal position. If, with pressure on a point located a couple of centimeters below and to the right of the navel, the pain sensations increase immediately after the woman rises to her feet, this is appendicitis. In all other cases, the pain should subside slightly.
  2. Symptom Promptov. The examination is carried out in the gynecologist's office: during the vaginal examination the cervix is ​​wrapped around the fingers and then slightly pulled back first to one side and then to the other. If such manipulations do not cause pain, it means that it is appendicitis.

In pregnancy

Diagnosing appendicitis in pregnant women is much more difficult, because physiological changes occur in the body, and the enlarged uterus causes the rectal dome to shift.

And this means that pain can be localized completely in other areas. That's why doctors have to resort to other methods of diagnosis, taking into account the symptoms:

  1. Taranenko. The pain intensifies when the pregnant patient begins to roll from the left side to the right.
  2. Michelson. If the appendix is ​​inflamed, then when lying on the right side of the pain will increase.

Signs of appendicitis in men

In addition to the general symptoms, there are "special", allowing to diagnose the disease in the stronger sex:

  1. Britten's symptom. If, when you feel the most painful areas, the patient spontaneously lifts the right testicle, then this indicates that the appendix is ​​inflamed.
  2. Laroc's Siptom. The right testicle tightens itself, even if the doctor does not perform any manipulation.
  3. Horn's symptom. When pulling the base of the scrotum, painful sensations appear in the right testicle.

How to recognize the signs of appendicitis in adolescents

Children who are ten years of age or older, with an inflammation of the appendix behave quite differently than the kids. It is noteworthy that in such patients it is not always possible to detect the presence of appendicitis, especially in the initial stages.

After all, the symptoms are the same as when poisoning, and pain is not localized in a particular area. With appendicitis, the teenager intuitively lies on his back or right side, because it is easier for him to endure painful sensations, either subsiding or intensifying.

The patient is experiencing an increase in heart rate and a slight increase in temperature. Constipation, rapid urination, white plaque in the tongue - it's all signs of appendicitis. But vomiting does not appear in all cases, and then only once.

How not to be mistaken when making a diagnosis? If with a weak tapping on the left side of the abdomen the pain appears or intensifies, then this is appendicitis. You can find out about the presence of peritonitis if you perform the following actions: put your hand on your abdomen and abruptly remove it. A short-term increase in pain indicates that the process has gone too far.

Signs of inflammation of the appendix in children

Children have not developed a large omentum, which means that the inflammation develops rapidly. If the child has a stomachache, then it is necessary to seek medical help, because in young children appendicitis passes into peritonitis for several hours, although in an adult this process proceeds much more slowly, and can take two days or more. Symptoms:

  1. A liquid and frequent stool.
  2. Increased urination.
  3. Multiple vomiting.
  4. Elevated body temperature (up to 400 C).
  5. Cardiopalmus.
  6. Lack of appetite and thirst.

When appendicitis, small children take the embryo pose and press the right leg to the stomach. The kid can not only cry, but also shout, so do not delay with the appeal to doctors.

Prevention of inflammation of the appendix

Appendicitis appears for several reasons, but the main one is the occlusion of the hole between the appendix and the caecum. The opening is overlapped: clots of mucus, hardened calories, food particles, which for some reason are not digested in the stomach, and other "biomass". Therefore, you should adjust the digestive system so that the possibility of constipation is avoided.

Suppuration can occur due to a change in the composition or proliferation of the appendix tissue. This is the case when doctors do not know what to recommend to their patients to prevent this.

Also, inflammation of the appendix can provoke any viral and infectious diseases, which include not only the flu and ARI, but also caries. Against the background of weakened immunity, appendicitis can develop, so every person should pay sufficient attention to their immune system.

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