Go How to grow petunia from seedlings: from seed to planting in the ground

How to grow petunia from seedlings

Petunia is a guest from the tropics, an impressively spectacular flower, which has been going on triumphantly around the world for almost 200 years. Petunia is widely used in flower beds for gardening balconies and terraces. It is rather hardy and unpretentious, it is well combined with partner plants.

The variety of species - according to various data from 15 to 40, colors - monophonic and variegated, size - from 10 to 100 cm, the shape of the flower - simple or terry, gives plenty of imagination in the design of the garden.

This perennial plant of the family Solanaceae is grown here as an annual, and is propagated mainly by seeds. Due to the fact that the vegetative period of petunia is long, and the seeds are tiny, direct sowing in the ground is excluded and seedling cultivation is used.

When to sow petunia on seedlings

To establish the optimal time for planting in different climates, they are guided by three parameters:

  1. Age of flowering.
  2. Landing time in open ground.
  3. The presence of special conditions for seedlings.

It is known that between the date of sowing and the formation of the first buds of petunia takes approximately 2 months. This period varies slightly in one direction or another in different species.

Young seedlings are susceptible to spring frosts and are planted when the onset of stable heat. In our country, this time varies between the beginning of May and the first decade of June. On packs of seeds indicate the average time of sowing, planting in open ground, flowering - sowing in March, planting in May, flowering in July - October.

Having made simple calculations, it is possible to determine the estimated sowing period - from the last days of February to the end of March. The specific date is specified depending on whether there is an opportunity to arrange the plant backlight.

Important: The fact is that petunias need sunlight to grow, and in February it is not enough. If the backlight is provided, then you can safely engage in planting in February, otherwise you need to wait until the second half of March.

According to the laws of the moon

All living organisms on earth, including plants, are influenced by the moon. In the growing sap flow rushes up - to the foliage, fruits, flowers. On decreasing in the opposite direction - to the roots from the crown.

Gardeners and gardeners take these processes into account when planting root crops and plants with an edible aerial part, when harvesting. Florists so strictly decreasing and growing moon does not limit, but it is desirable to take into account the general rules:

  1. Sow flowers on the growing moon.
  2. On a full moon and a new moon, no manipulations with plants should be carried out.
  3. Pinching and transplanting to make a waning moon.

You can pay attention to what sign of the zodiac affects the earth on a particular day. Successful signs for sowing petunias on seedlings - Taurus, Cancer, Scorpio (fertile signs). In less fertile - Libra, Capricorn, Pisces - you can sow, but it is better to do irrigation, pinching, transplanting.

Sowing in the intermediate signs of Gemini and Virgo is permissible. Barren - Aries, Aquarius, Leo, Sagittarius. Plants are easily damaged these days, so it’s better not to touch them at all, the maximum that is allowed is thinning and weeding.

Seedling at home

The most difficult moment in the cultivation of petunia is sowing and care until one month of age, since the seeds of these flowers are very small, and the tender shoots are sensitive to excessive or insufficient moisture and light.

But knowing some secrets and taking into account the peculiarities, you can grow strong viable seedlings. The result will be a bright bloom, which begins in the first days of summer and ends with the arrival of autumn frosts.

What seeds to choose

Petunia seeds are sold in two forms: bulk and in granules.

  1. Granular (coated) are more expensive, they have a higher germination rate, they are more convenient when sowing, because they are large and painted in a contrasting color to the soil. In a pack of them a little - from 5 to 20 pieces. Usually, granules sell seeds of terry or large-flowered hybrid petunias.
  2. In bulk petunia cost is not so expensive that in no way speaks of poor quality or unsightly appearance of flowers. Just individual varieties give more seeds, their price is cheaper. The weight in one pack is 0.1 g, which is about 200 pieces.

The calculation is simple - if you need terry or ampelous (cascading) forms of petunias for hanging pots, balcony boxes, to design the first plan of the bed in small quantities, then hybrid granular seeds are preferred. To fill large areas it is more profitable to buy varietal in packs by weight.

Capacity for seedlings

Capacities for petunias should be wide with medium depth with a transparent, permeable to sunlight and a greenhouse effect cover (film).

Tip: It is not necessary to spend money, plastic containers will be suitable for storing and freezing products. Containers are washed and disinfected before use.

Peat tablets do not fit very well, for good reason:

  1. It will take a large number of them, and it is unprofitable.
  2. During the growth of seedlings, it dives and the pills will go for release.
  3. Petunia does not like sour peat.

Soil selection

Most often, when growing seedlings in boxes, they use purchased universal soil for flowers or a mixture of 50% turf, 40% peat or leaf earth, 6-7% river sand, and 3-4% wood ash (ash).

Leafy earth of good quality has a light coffee color and contains a small amount of undecomposed leaves. The best is land in beech forests. In conifers, it has an acid reaction and is suitable for azaleas, anthurium, etc. From under the poplar, willow, oak does not have high quality and therefore does not apply.

Peat is characterized by lightness, friability and great moisture absorption, it is used to improve the quality of other types of land. High nutritional properties does not possess. When introduced into the soil increases acidity.

Sod is used in the compilation of almost all types of soil mixtures. Due to the large amount of plant residues it contains a significant supply of nutrients, but is prone to compaction. The best turf is obtained from old pastures and meadows.

The sand makes the mixture more friable. River, pure and coarse grained is preferred.

Sowing and its features

Excessive penetration slows the germination of seeds, there is a danger of their death due to oxygen deficiency. Depth is determined by the size of the seed: the larger it is, the deeper it is placed, and vice versa. By acting in accordance with these rules, petunias are sown superficially.

Granulated seeds spread with tweezers at an equal distance in increments of approximately 2 cm on a moderately moist soil. Then they are gently pressed into the soil, the earth is not sprinkled on top. Scatter less often sow fingers. In order to avoid planting thickening, you can pre-mix the seeds with sand.

Sowing both granulated and untreated seeds in the snow is very convenient. Snow is laid out on the ground in a container in an even layer of 1–3 cm and the seeds are spread on it. When thawing snow moistens the soil and tightens the seeds to the desired depth.

Correct watering

After sowing, the containers are covered with a transparent film or a lid and placed in a room with a temperature of + 20-22 ° C. It is necessary to monitor the constant humidity of the substrate, but avoid stagnant water.

The condensate on the film or the lid is removed by daily venting of the seedlings. After the first green shoots appeared, the temperature is lowered to + 18-20 ° С and they provide solar or artificial lighting.

A sign of the need for watering is drying the soil at the roots. You can not bring the case to the complete drying of the earth, but wrong and frequent watering without the need. Water temperature should be the same with air temperature or 2-3 degrees higher.

Picking

Dive seedlings in the phase of two true leaves by way of handling. Transfer is like a transfer. It is carried out a couple of times to get strong, developed plants.

The difference between transshipment and transplanting is as follows: when transplanting, a part of the ground is taken out, often a part of thin roots is removed, and when transferring, the roots and soil around them are not destroyed, but transferred to new pots entirely. (It is more convenient to use a spatula for this procedure).

Perevallennye flowers contain in the same conditions as before the transfer, but with an excess of sunlight shade. By transshipment, you can adjust the time of the appearance of flowers - with frequent it moves away, and with rare - approaching. Frequent handling helps to get strong, powerful plants.

For the formation of the crown and obtain abundant flowering plants pinch, that is, remove the tops. As a result, the lower buds develop, the plant takes the form of a bundle. Petunias pinch when they reach a height of 10 cm.

Diseases and pests

Petunia is loved by thrips, aphids, whiteflies and spider mites. By the type of damage inflicted, pests are divided into gnawing and sucking. The way they feed has practical implications in determining control measures.

  • Thrips suck the juice, damage the leaves and flowers, the plants become discolored and deformed.
  • Aphid attacks most often. Sometimes yellow, green, reddish and black, eats plant sap. It can be easily identified by the layer of insects covering the stem, deformed and twisted with black dots of leaves, sooty mold.
  • Whiteflies are small flying insects that fly by touching a flower. The leaves turn yellow, fade.
  • Spider mite causes a lot of problems - there is a general depression of petunias, a thin web around the leaves. Mite sucks the juice from the underside of the leaf along the length of the main nerve. At first, the damage looks like bright spots, and later - as large spots. Thin silvery specks appear on the leaves. The affected parts are removed, the plant itself is sprayed with colloidal sulfur.

They fight pests with chemical preparations, wash away aphids with a strong jet of water, or spray them with a soap solution (liquid soap with alcohol). Handle the upper and lower side of the leaf plate.

The most intractable diseases of petunia are fungal and infectious. The most common are presented in the table.

Planting petunias in the ground - the subtleties and features

The soil in the area designated for planting flowers should be carefully prepared. In the autumn, it must be deeply dug, and loosened in the spring, at the same time clearing the roots of perennial weeds and stones from the roots, leveling. Next make out the flower beds.

Flowerbeds are of three types: high (positively raised) - located above the soil surface, even (zero) - on the surface and low (negative) - below the surface.

The type of flower bed is chosen depending on climatic conditions. Where the groundwater is low, it is better to make low beds. They require little labor and are especially recommended when there is a sprinkler.

Flower beds are made in the direction from north to south, 1.1-1.3 m wide and of arbitrary length, but not more than 20-25 m, otherwise the maintenance is difficult. If the flower beds are wider than 1.3 m, it will be difficult to process them and care for the flowers.

The distance between the bushes in a row is 15 cm, between the rows - 15 cm, per 1 sq. M - 50 plants (for bush forms). Transplanted by way of transshipment.

Soil mulching reduces the amount of irrigation and loosening, retards the evaporation of water from the soil, protects the soil surface from crust formation and suppresses the growth of weeds. For mulching use different materials - straw with manure, peat, moss, special mulch paper, polyethylene.

After planting, flowers are watered daily or every other day, early in the morning or in the evening. The soil is loosened after 15 days so that a crust does not form. After the first loosening, scattered manure is scattered in a 3-4 cm layer. The weeds that have appeared and faded flowers are immediately removed.

During the growing season, the plants are fed with readily soluble mineral fertilizers and slurry.

Flower boxes

Petunias, like plants with a long flowering period, are excellent for outdoor gardening of buildings. More preferably the south, south-east and south-west sides.

Gardening balconies and windows is unthinkable without the good shape and design of the drawers. The boxes can be wooden and plastic. The most suitable length is 1 m, width is 15 cm and height is 22 cm. They are not recommended for small ones, as the ground dries quickly.

Not very comfortable very large because of its severity. In the bottom make 4-6 holes for drainage of excess water during watering. The soil should be 2 cm below the edge. The boxes are painted in colors that are in harmony with the facade.

Coloring of flowers should be harmoniously combined. A beautiful combination of orange and blue, yellow and purple, red and white. After completing the flowering petunias in the box with several flowerpots with flowers, you will receive a charming miniature garden.

Petunias plant boxes of 1-3 rows in standard-sized boxes, depending on the variety - tall and strong-growing in 1 row with 4 plants, average in 2 rows with 5 plants, low in 3 rows with 6 bushes. Planted well-developed seedlings.

In constructive terms, the best are those that have a reservoir (galvanized tin trough) at the bottom for draining excess water. It protects the facade from contamination and eliminates dripping water.

Tips and tricks

Petunia is quite a hardy and unpretentious plant. It grows well on any soil fertilized with humus. Prefers sunny areas, but withstands light penumbra. These qualities make it an indispensable decoration of the site, and following the recommendations of experienced flower growers will help to achieve maximum results with minimal effort.

  • Pay attention to the shelf life of seeds, in the third year they lose their germination. Give preference to proven manufacturers.
  • Keep the seedlings in the greenhouse, that is, under a film or a lid until the time when the real leaves appear. Provide day and night temperature drops.
  • Correctly determine the pinching point - 5 leaves counting from the bottom of the stem. Re-pinching after 1 month. From the pinch pieces, you can get new plants, if you put them in the water and wait for the roots to appear.
  • Start feeding a few weeks after the first pick. Root and foliar supplements alternate with different fertilizers and stimulants.
  • If the roots fill the entire volume of the seedling container, conduct an unscheduled pick.
  • Remove the first buds, which rob the plant of the strength needed for growth.
  • Choose for planting in the ground strong seedlings with well-developed roots. The leaves should be juicy green. Reject weak, stunted, pale plants.

The reward for your efforts will be flower beds or flowerpots with flowers of various shades, which all summer long will please the eye, beckon bees and butterflies to the garden.



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